Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Pollachius: Scottish dialect, podlock, paddle = bumpfish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 37 - 364 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate, preferred 6°C (Ref. 107945); 77°N - 33°N, 76°W - 35°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 39.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645); max. published weight: 32.0 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 1371)
spines: 0. Chin barbel small. Lateral line smooth along its entire length. Body color is brownish-green dorsally, becoming only slightly paler ventrally. The lateral line pale.
Eastern Atlantic: Barents Sea, Spitsbergen to Bay of Biscay, around Iceland. Western Atlantic: southwest Greenland, Hudson Strait to North Carolina, although rare at the extremes of the range. Migrations for spawning are known to occur. Also long-distance north-south migrations for Europe and the US.
An active, gregarious fish occurring inshore and offshore waters. Usually enters coastal waters in spring and returns to deeper waters in winter (Ref. 9988). Smaller fish in inshore waters feed on small crustaceans (copepods, amphipods, euphausiids) and small fish, while larger fish prey predominantly upon fishes. Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00464 - 0.01241), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (rm=0.55-0.87; K=0.07-0.17; tm=2-10; tmax=25; Fec=220,000).
Prior r = 0.4, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 0.75, log(r) = -0.92, SD log(r) = 0.31, Based on: 2 M, 11 K, 19 tgen, 3 tmax, 4 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .