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Pleuragramma antarctica  Boulenger, 1902

Antarctic silverfish
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Pleuragramma antarctica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pleuragramma antarctica (Antarctic silverfish)
Pleuragramma antarctica
Picture by Sala, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Nototheniidae (Cod icefishes)
Etymology: Pleuragramma: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, gramma = letter, signal (Ref. 45335);  antarctica: Named after the region in which this is common (Ref. 11892).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 728 m (Ref. 11892).   Polar; ? - 2°C (Ref. 6390); 60°S - 78°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5179); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2121); max. published weight: 200.00 g (Ref. 6390); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 5216)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 6 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 35-38; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 36 - 39; Vertebrae: 52 - 56. Pre-opercular-mandibular canal pores 9 (rarely 10), with 3 (rarely 4) on the mandible. Infraorbital canal with 4+2 pores; lateral line organs (neuromasts) present exposed region between the canal segments, the normal number probably being 4 (rarely 5), but some or all are often missing. Supraorbital canal with 3+1 pores (a second, more posterior pore rarely present in postero-dorsal section); between these 2 supraorbital canal segments is a trough divided by 3 low transverse ridges into 4 shallow depressions; on each ridge is a neuromasts organ. Temporal canal with 1+4 pores; between the 2 segment lies a single exposed neuromast. Supratemporal canal with 1+1 pores; no traces of neuromasts were found in the intervening regions. Color: In life, pink with a silvery hue, the dorsal surface slightly darker. All fins pale, with clear hyaline membranes. The body becomes silvery with a darker dorsum only after death (Ref. 28937).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland, Elephant, South Orkney islands, Weddell, Bellingshausen, Ross and Davis seas, Oates, Adélie, Wilhelm and other coasts of East Antarctica to Prydz Bay.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Regarded as the only truly pelagic fish in Antarctic waters (Ref. 6390). Larvae and postlarvae occur between 0 to 135 m; juveniles 50 to 400 and adults below 400 m (Ref. 5179). Postlarvae feed mainly on eggs and larvae of copepods; juveniles mainly on copepods, but take also eggs and larvae of euphausiids, polychaetes and chaetognaths (Ref. 5179). Larger items are ingested with increase in size (Ref. 5179). Larval pelagic phase is long (Ref. 28916).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Mature females may spawn for the first time from around 7-9 years of age (Ref. 71843).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00309 - 0.01073), b=3.18 (3.02 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.14; tm=3-4; tmax=20; Fec=4,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.