Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae
Etymology: Phrynorhombus: Greek, phryne = toad + Greek, rhombos = paralelogram (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic, usually 10 - 200 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 71°N - 46°N, 25°W - 25°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4703)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Rough scales on both sides. Dorsal fin origin above upper eye. Pelvic and anal fins not used (Ref. 35388).
Northeast Atlantic: off Iceland and from Murman coast to Bay of Biscay.
Occurs on rocky bottoms between 10 and 180 m. Feeds on small fish and invertebrates (Ref. 4703). Spawns in April - July (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1986. Scophthalmidae. p. 1287-1293. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4703)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00511 - 0.02146), b=2.99 (2.81 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .