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Peprilus burti  Fowler, 1944

Gulf butterfish
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Peprilus burti   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Peprilus burti (Gulf butterfish)
Peprilus burti
Picture by NOAA\NMFS\Mississippi Laboratory

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Stromateidae (Butterfishes)
Etymology: Peprilus: Greek, peprilos, paprax, certain fish from Tracia.   More on author: Fowler.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 2 - 275 m (Ref. 53006), usually 155 - 225 m (Ref. 53006).   Subtropical; 38°N - 18°N, 98°W - 74°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: entire Gulf of Mexico, from Tampa region in Florida, USA to Yucatan in Mexico; also in Virginia to northeastern Florida, USA (but possibly representing P. tricanthus instead, Ref. 53006).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - 16 cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oval, deep (its depth less than 2.5 times in total length) and strongly compressed; eye surrounded by a small area of adipose tissue; snout short and blunt, lower jaw projecting somewhat beyond upper; mouth small, tip of maxillary not reaching below eye margin; teeth in jaws very small, in one row while those in the upper jaw flattened and with 3 tiny cusps; dorsal and anal fin bases very long (about equal in length), the anterior fin rays elevated, but fins not falcate, and both fins preceded by 3 short, weak, spines; caudal fin deeply forked; pectoral fins long (longer than head) and pointed; pelvic fins absent; distinct series of 17 to 25 pores along anterior half of body under the dorsal fin; lateral line high, following dorsal profile; scales small, present also on cheeks; caudal vertebrae 16 to 18; body color pale blue above, silvery below (fading after death), no spots (Ref. 53006).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A pelagic fish forming large loose schools across the continental shelf over sand/mud bottoms; depth range from 2 to 275 m at least, but most abundant at 155 to 225 m; found near the bottom during the day and migrating into the water column at night. Juveniles often found under floating weeds and with jellyfish. Adults feed on jellyfish, small fish, crustaceans, and worms; the juveniles are plankton and jellyfish feeders. Mature within 1 year and rarely lives past 2; spawning takes place at discrete intervals twice a year slightly offshore. Highly esteemed for food, marketed fresh and frozen; caught mainly with otter trawls (Ref. 53006).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00730 - 0.02492), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.28 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1; tmax=2; k >0.3).
Prior r = 2.73, 2 SD range = 1.41 - 5.28, log(r) = 1, SD log(r) = 0.33, Based on: 1 M, 2 K, 1 tgen, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .