Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Pellonula: Latin, pellis = skin + Latin, nullus = no one (Ref. 45335); leonensis: Named for D.M. Norman, in gratitude (Ref. 103176). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 17°N - 5°S, 18°W - 24°E (Ref. 26213)
Africa: Lagoons, lakes and lower and upper courses of West African rivers (Ref. 188, 2849, 81269), from Senegal River to Sanaga River (Ref. 2244). Also in lagoons and lower parts of coastal rivers from Cameroon to Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 2244, 81631), including a record in the Léfini River (Ref. 88782).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 9.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57961)
soft rays: 16 - 22. Diagnosis: Pellonula leonensis is characterised by having the first prepelvic scute being as large as the following ones lacking ascending arms, located behind the pectoral-fin bases; also characteristic are the inward-curving premaxillary teeth (Ref. 2244, 2849, 81269, 81631). It resembles Pellonula vorax, which has larger and straighter teeth, often pointing forward, and scutes before pectoral fin bases (Ref. 188). Absence of large canine teeth in upper jaw distinguishes it from Odaxothrissa and also Cynothrissa; Microthrissa species are deep-bodied and have much more slender maxilla (Ref. 188).
Found chiefly in rivers and streams, but also in lakes, reservoirs and lagoons. Apparently able to enter brackish and seawater bodies. Adults form schools. Mainly nocturnal. They feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects, also on ostracods, entomostracans and fish larvae (Ref. 2245). Breed from September to July in Lake Volta.
Gourène, G. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Révision du genre Pellonula des eaux douces africaines (Pisces: Clupeidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(3):213-225. (Ref. 2244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 27.9, mean 26.7 (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00785 - 0.01059), b=3.02 (2.98 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .