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Pegusa lascaris  (Risso, 1810)

Sand sole
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Pegusa lascaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pegusa lascaris (Sand sole)
Pegusa lascaris
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Soleidae (Soles)
Etymology: Pegusa: The old name of the Cnidus, the city in Asia minos where the Atheniasn defeated Spartans in a naval battle near 394 BC.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 350 m (Ref. 4710), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 26999).   Subtropical; 57°N - 32°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 22 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4710); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2714); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 32766)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 69-87; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 53 - 73; Vertebrae: 40 - 48. Last ray of dorsal and anal fins joined by a low membrane to the base of the caudal fin. Supratemporal branch of lateral line forming an arch. Anterior nostril on the blind side prominent forming a large round rosette, its diameter equal to that of the eye. Lower lip on ocular side undulated with about 6 lobes. Length of both nasal tubes and scales above it on the ocular side about equal. Pectoral fin on the ocular side with a black botch with a white margin except at its base; this blotch often interrupted by light space or accompanied by dots or streaks on one side or the other (present in fresh specimens from coast of Israel (Ref. 32649). Brownish yellow or reddish brown in color with obscure pale blotches and specks (Ref. 3200).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: northeastern to southeastern Atlantic; perhaps Gulf of Guinea; the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea; reported from Suez Canal (Ref. 32649); and Sea of Azov (Ref. 4710).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on gravel, sand or mud. Feeds on a wide range of small marine bivalves; mainly on crustaceans such as amphipods, mysids, shrimps, decapods, bivalves and polychaetes (Ref. 4710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. A taxonomic reappraisal of the Atlanto-Mediterranean soles Solea solea, S. senegalensis and S. lascaris. J. Fish Biol. 36(6):947-960. (Ref. 32649)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00341 - 0.02227), b=3.08 (2.85 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.41; tm=4; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.