Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Pardachirus: Greek, pardias, -ou = a fish similar to grey mullet + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 3200). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3505)
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea and Persian Gulf to Durban, South Africa and Sri Lanka (Ref. 30573).
Occurs in shallow coastal waters, on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 30573). Feeds mainly on bottom living invertebrates. Marketed fresh. Produces a bitter toxic substance from the bases of the dorsal and anal fin rays that deters predation, even by sharks (Ref. 9710) and thus may prove valuable as a shark repellent (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and O. Gon, 1986. Soleidae. p. 868-874. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3200)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00511 - 0.02351), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .