Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 11230). Subtropical; 62°N - 1°N, 99°E - 163°E (Ref. 54698)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - ? cm
Max length : 103 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 9.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Western Pacific: Japan, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands, Korean Peninsula to the South China Sea.
Most highly prized of the Japanese flounders.
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00499 - 0.02097), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; Fec= 3 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .