Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 550 m (Ref. 11892), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5179). Polar; 60°S - 78°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5179)
Southern Ocean: Ross, Davis and Weddell Sea, Vincennes Bay, Budd Coast, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney and South Shetland islands.
A cryopelagic species associated with the underside of ice. An anti-freezing substance enable Individuals to tolerate sub-zero temperature (Ref. 33215). Adults feed on copepods and krill (Ref. 5179). Sexually mature individuals spawn once a year (Ref. 89319). Larval pelagic phase is long (Ref. 89319).
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00332 - 0.01582), b=3.16 (2.97 - 3.35), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.34 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 1,500-3,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .