Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pentacerotidae
(Armorheads) > Pentacerotinae
Etymology: Pentaceros: Greek, pente = five + Greek, keras = horn (Ref. 45335); richardsoni: Named after John Richardson, naturalist and explorer (Ref. 6885).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 75886). Temperate, preferred 17°C (Ref. 107945); 23°S - 56°S, 68°W - 174°W
Southeast Atlantic: Tristan de Cunha and South Africa. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. South Pacific: southern Australia and New Zealand and Cape Horn, Chile. North Pacific records refers to pectoralis (Ref. 4537).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5449)
Have been trawled on the continental shelf and slope; juveniles recorded from surface waters (Ref. 9563). Depth range reported at 0m-600m in Ref. 5449.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Pentacerotidae. p. 622-623. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5449)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5157 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .