Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 9°S - 15°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 26.9, range 20 - 37 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 16 - 17;
soft rays: 8 - 10;
Vertebrae: 30 - 32. Lower pharyngeal toothed area with concave sides; median length of bone 1.26-1.36 times its width and 37.6-40.6 length of head; blade 1.6-2.4 times the median length of the toothed area. Caudal fin scaly.
Africa: Endemic to Lake Malawi.
Occurs at a temperature range of 21.5-29°C (Ref. 2), in all kinds of habitats but is seen mainly in shallow water. Is abundant in shallow vegetated bays. Forms schools. Feeds on phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, and sometimes from the sediment on the sand (Ref. 5595).
Mating behavior includes the T-stand, both partners alternately forming the horizontal part of the T. Eggs are laid in batches and immediately picked up by the female. Fertilization takes place both on the ground and in the mouth. Females brood eggs/young, guarding their fry until about 15 mm (Ref. 2781).
Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Oreochromis. p. 307-346. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5166)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00911 - 0.03313), b=2.99 (2.83 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.1 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24-0.45; tm=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .