Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated. Subtropical; 43°N - 25°N, 82°W - 68°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 38 cm
Max length : 43.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Florida in USA, straggling south to Miami in cold years.
Largely inhabits inshore water on rocky bottoms and reefs, jetties and wrecks. Frequently occurs among litter and tolerates polluted water. Becoming important as an experimental fish because of its size and hardiness. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35422).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00429 - 0.01851), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .