Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; ? - 22°C (Ref. 54666)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5521)
Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Cuba and possibly off Yucatan, Mexico.
Sluggish, but pugnacious when approached closely (Ref. 5521). Dark coloration of the buccal cavity more developed in the larger specimens indicating that this trait is related to growth or maturation (Ref. 54666).
Böhlke, J.E. and C.C.G. Chaplin, 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00483 - 0.01975), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .