Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical; 35°N - 15°N, 98°W - 74°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Dark brown bars on caudal and pectoral fins; bars on pectoral fin irregularly joined (Ref. 26938).
Western Atlantic: Florida (USA), Little Bahama Bank (Bahamas) and the entire Gulf of Mexico to Campeche, Mexico (Ref. 7251). Range extended to Brazil (Ref. 94035).
Commonly found in seagrass beds and rocky cuts in coastal bays and lagoons, and in shallows along open coast. In western coast of Florida, adults spawn in February and March (Ref. 26938). Nesting males produce grunt calls called the boatwhistle as advertisement of competition among males and to attract females (Ref. 45338). Neither opercular nor dorsal gland is venomous (Ref. 57406).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31174)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01020 (0.00575 - 0.01809), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.218; tm=1+).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .