Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Smelts) > Opisthoproctidae
(Barreleyes or spookfishes)
Etymology: Opisthoproctus: Greek, opisthe = behind + Greek,proktos = anus (Ref. 45335). More on author: Vaillant.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 300 - 800 m (Ref. 6542), usually 500 - 700 m (Ref. 6542). Deep-water; 51°N -
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - ? cm
Max length : 10.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6542)
spines: 0. Sides of body dark; head below and behind eye sprinkled with large melanophores; snout translucent ventrally, transparent dorsally (Ref. 6597). Anal fin either with 2-3 rudimentary rays or not visible externally (Ref. 6597).
Circumglobal in tropical to temperate waters. Eastern Atlantic: western Ireland to Mauritania and from Sierra Leone to Angola (Ref. 6542). South China Sea (Ref.74511)
Mesopelagic (Ref. 58302). Probably not exhibiting vertical migration (Ref. 6686). The limits of its distribution coincide with the 400m-isotherm for 8°C (Ref. 6542).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., 1990. Opisthroproctidae. p. 241-243. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6542)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.1 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .