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Opisthonema libertate  (Günther, 1867)

Pacific thread herring
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
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Opisthonema libertate   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Opisthonema libertate (Pacific thread herring)
Opisthonema libertate
Picture by Cotto Sánchez, A.J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Opisthonema: Greek, opisthe = behind + Greek,nema = filament (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 70 - ? m (Ref. 96339), usually 50 - ? m (Ref. 11035).   Tropical; 28°N - 3°S, 112°W - 78°W (Ref. 54686)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9291)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-21; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 12 - 23. The filamentous last dorsal fin ray distinguishes it from members of any other eastern Pacific clupeoid genus. Separated from eastern Pacific Opisthonema species by having 63 to 110 lower gill rakers in fishes over 14 cm standard length.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Santa Rosalita, Pacific coast of Baja, California, Mexico southward to Punta Sal and Punta Picos, Peru. (Earlier works probably combined data for Opisthonema bulleri and Opisthonema medirastre). Range is extended northwards to San Pedro, California (Ref. 35601). Rare on outer coast of Baja California Sur (Ref. 35601).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Usually occur near the surface of coastal and offshore waters, down to over bottom of continental shelf (Ref. 11035). Form dense schools. Apparently the most abundant of the eastern Pacific species of Opisthonema. Feed on phytoplankton (dinoflagellates and diatoms). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35601). It is reduced to fish meal (Ref. 9291). Oil may be extracted (Ref. 9291). May be canned (Ref. 9291).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 35601).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; bait: occasionally
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00513 - 0.01348), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.28 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.22-0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
medium
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.