Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Narcinidae
Etymology: Narcine: Greek, narke = numbness (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 43 m (Ref. 13608). Subtropical; 37°N - 39°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 23 - 25 cm
Max length : 54.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 35.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 650 g (Ref. 6902)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A pale sand-colored ray, often with ellipses of dark spots on dorsal side of rounded disk (Ref. 26938). Grayish to reddish brown, many rounded blotches outlined with blackish spots. Dark bands across tail up to dorsal fin. Snout darkened (Ref. 7251).
Western Atlantic: Espirito Santo, Brazil to northern Argentina (Carvalho, pers. comm.). North Carolina, USA to Florida, northern Gulf of Mexico, central Lesser Antilles and Yucatan (Ref. 26938).
Inhabits coastal waters, on sand or mud bottoms (Ref. 26340). Common along sandy shorelines, sometimes near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Buries itself with only eyes protruding (Ref. 12951). Nocturnal, moves to shallow bays at night to feed; prefers worms, but may take juvenile snake eels, anemones, and, small crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Produces broods of 4 to 15 young (Ref. 26938). Can discharge between 14 and 37 volts. Contact with the skin can produce a severe electric shock. In addition to the main electric organ, this species possesses a bilateral accessory electric organ (Ref. 10011) speculated to have a possible role in social communication (Ref. 10489). Reported to taste good, but not fished commercially. Traded as an aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00000 (0.00000 - 0.00000), b=0.00000 (0.00000 - 0.00000), based on (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .