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Myliobatis californica  Gill, 1865

Bat eagle ray
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Myliobatis californica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Myliobatis californica (Bat eagle ray)
Myliobatis californica
Picture by Gotshall, D.W.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 46 m (Ref. 12951).   Subtropical; 43°N - 5°S, 126°W - 85°W (Ref. 55258)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9257); max. published weight: 82.1 kg (Ref. 40637)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Oregon, USA to Gulf of California (Ref. 2850) and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 28023).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Commonly found in sandy and muddy bays and sloughs, also on rocky bottom and in kelp beds (Ref. 2850). Sometimes buries itself in sand (Ref. 2850). Found singly or in schools (Ref. 12951). Feeds on bivalves, snails, polychaetes, shrimps, and crabs (Ref. 9257). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Not fished commercially, but shows up as by-catch species (Ref. 9257).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1995. Myliobatidae. Aguilas marinas. p. 765-768. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9257)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00119 - 0.01213), b=3.08 (2.82 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3; tmax=23; k=0.09-0.22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.