Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mulloidichthys: Latin, mullus = soft + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 76 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 30°N - 32°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 7. Back grey to olive, sides and belly whitish; 1-2 longitudinal yellow bands; dark blotch below 1st dorsal fin (Ref. 5405). Yellow-mid-lateral stripe from eye to tail and some yellow striping on cheek and along abdomen (Ref. 48636). Head length 3.1-3.5 in SL, length of snout 1.9.-2.2 and barbel 1.4-1.7 in HL. Body depth 3.7-4.8 in SL. (Ref. 90102)
Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050); Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu and Bonin Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa Islands. Common throughout most of its range (Ref. 9710).
Occasionally schooling species inhabit shallow sandy areas of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Large adults are often found solitary on sand slopes with other species following to feed on prey that are disturbed when the goatfish is feeding (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on crustaceans, mollusks, worms, heart urchins and foraminiferans. Consumed fresh or dried. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00576 - 0.01380), b=3.08 (2.95 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16-0.27).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .