Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 3791). Subtropical; 32°N - 51°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 35.0, range 40 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); 69.0 cm TL (female); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 9.0 kg (Ref. 5217)
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), Bahamas, and throughout the Caribbean Sea to Argentina.
Inhabit coastal marine waters and brackish estuaries (Ref. 3791); also found in hyper-saline lagoons and may enter freshwater (Ref. 5217). Never far from the sea (Ref. 3791). Form sizeable schools (Ref. 3791). Appear to undergo trophic migrations along the coasts (Ref. 35237). Feed on organic detritus and filamentous algae (Ref. 9626). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Spawn several million eggs (Ref. 35237) at sea (Ref. 3791). Also caught with beach nets (Ref. 5217). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 5217). The roe is marketed salt-pickled and dried and considered a delicacy (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00892 - 0.01288), b=2.96 (2.92 - 3.00), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.24; assuming tm=2-3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .