Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical; 11°S - 21°S
Africa: Cunene (Ref. 13337, 52193), Okavango, upper Zambezi and Kafue systems (Ref. 52193).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52193); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 52193)
soft rays: 18 - 21. Diagnosis: dorsal fin greater than twice length of anal fin; dorsal origin nearer tip of snout than caudal fin base; snout 3-3.2 times in head length; caudal peduncle more than 4 times in standard length (Ref. 52193).
Prefers quiet stretches of river channels, deep pools and floodplain lagoons with aquatic vegetation; may form small shoals; feeds mainly on insect larvae, shrimps, small snails and small fish (Ref. 52193). Known to move up tributaries when they come down in spate and may breed in newly inundated areas (Ref. 13337). Spawns during the rainy season; females carry up to 7,000 eggs; caught by subsistence fishermen and anglers (Ref. 7248, 52193).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gosse, J.-P., 1984. Mormyridae. p. 63-122. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3203)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00586 - 0.02249), b=2.82 (2.65 - 2.99), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .