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Molva molva  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ling
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Molva molva   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Molva molva (Ling)
Molva molva
Picture by Calypso Photolibrary

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Lotidae (Hakes and burbots)

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 35388), usually 100 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 75°N - 35°N, 55°W - 44°E (Ref. 54595)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 90.0, range 90 - 100 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); common length : 106 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 75-83; Anal soft rays: 58 - 64; Vertebrae: 63 - 65. Upper jaw projecting beyond lower one. Color is reddish brown dorsally, grading to white ventrally. The posterior areas of the vertical fins dark with pale margins. The sides distinctly marbled (Ref. 232). Barbel is present in the chin, longer than the diameter of the eye. Black spot in the rear end of the first dorsal fin. Caudal peduncle stout compared to blue ling (Ref. 35388).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: off southern Greenland and Canada. Northeast Atlantic: Barents Sea and Iceland to Morocco. Mediterranean Sea: northwestern Mediterranean only.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs mainly on rocky bottoms in fairly deep water (Ref. 9988). Found more commonly from 100 to 400 m. Feeds on fish (cod, herring, flatfish), lobsters, cephalopods and starfishes. Principal spawning areas are Biscay, slopes west of the British Isles and off the Faeroes and southern Iceland (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh, dried or salted and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00216 - 0.00639), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.12; tm=5-6; tmax=25; Fec=60 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.