Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 9563). Temperate; 30°S - 48°S, 112°E - 180°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258)
Indo-West Pacific: New Zealand and Australia (southern Western Australia to New South Wales and Tasmania).
Inhabits rocky weedy areas from the shore to at least 60 m. Generally solitary but may aggregate in groups of 10-15 individuals in midwater. Feeds mainly on sessile and encrusting organisms, with sponges and ascidians predominating (Ref. 26966). Feeds on bottom invertebrates, also seen feeding mid-water on zooplankton, likes to bite diver's fingers (Ref. 9002).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Armitage, R.O., D.A. Payne, G.J. Lockley, H.M. Currie, R.L. Colban, B.G. Lamb and L.J. Paul (eds.), 1994. Guide book to New Zealand commercial fish species. Revised edition. New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, Wellington, New Zealand, 216 p. (Ref. 9258)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02884 (0.01540 - 0.05401), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .