Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Merlucciidae
(Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 50 - 1000 m (Ref. 27121), usually 150 - 450 m (Ref. 27121). Deep-water; 11°S - 37°S, 5°E - 33°E (Ref. 58452)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 47.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6605); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Southeast Atlantic: Baie Farte, Angola around Cape to Natal, South Africa. Also found on Valdivia Bank (26°18'S, 6°20'E).
Found on the continental shelf and slope to depths over 1,000 m (Ref. 27121). Juveniles (to about 64 cm) feed on small crustaceans and small deep-sea fishes such as lanternfishes, whereas larger individuals feed chiefly on small hakes and jack mackerel (Ref. 1371); cannibalism is common (Ref. 27121). Migrates southward in the spring and northward in autumn (Ref. 1371). Breeds throughout the year, peaks of reproductive activity in August and September (Ref. 36731). Marketed smoked, frozen, and fresh on ice; eaten steamed, fried and baked (Ref. 9988). The South African Hake Trawl fishery of this species has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (http://www.msc.org/) as well-managed and sustainable (http://www.msc.org/html/content_1092.htm).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00334 - 0.00863), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.65 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.13).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .