Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Melapedalion: Greek, melan, -anos = black + Greek, pedalion = rudder (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9843)
Western Central Pacific: limited to South China and Sulu seas.
A coastal species.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1999. Hemiramphidae. Halfbeaks. p. 2180-2196. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9843)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00234 (0.00104 - 0.00528), b=3.16 (2.97 - 3.35), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .