Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Molidae
(Molas or Ocean Sunfishes)
Etymology: Masturus: Greek, mastax, -agos = bite + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; bathypelagic; depth range ? - 670 m (Ref. 36453). Deep-water; 37°N - 35°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 337 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6952); max. published weight: 2.0 t (Ref. 4424)
Circumglobal: In tropical to subtropical waters. Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA (Ref. 7251) to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 36453).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tortonese, E., 1990. Molidae. p. 1077-1079. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6952)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.00845 - 0.05934), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .