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Malacoraja senta  (Garman, 1885)

Smooth skate
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Image of Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)
Malacoraja senta
Picture by Garazo Fabregat, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Malacoraja: Greek, malakos = soft + Latin, raja, -ae = ray, fis (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; bathydemersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 46 - 914 m (Ref. 7251).   Deep-water; 54°N - 40°N

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6902)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Spines are larger toward front and disappear with age on rear parts of tail. Few scapular spines. Group of spines in front of and around each eye. Adults have 1 middorsal row of many small spines, 1 row of small spines on each side, middorsal row of spines extend forward on disk to area behind eyes. Young have 2 pale crossbars on tail, each outlined by a dark blotch or band. Snout pointed (Ref. 7251). Upper surface pale brown with numerous obscure darker spots, irregular pale markings. Lower surface plain white with few small dusky spots (Ref. 6902).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Banks off Newfoundland and southern Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to New Jersey, USA. Caught frequently in the river part of St. Lawrence estuary and nearby points in Quebec, Canada (Ref. 4926).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits soft mud and clay bottoms of the deeper troughs and basins, sands and shells, gravel and pebbles of the offshore fishing banks (Ref. 6902). Benthic (Ref. 5951). Salinity ranges from 32.6 to 35.4 (Ref. 6902). This species is confined to deep water. No occurrence has been found in less than 8 m of water. Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 5.0-5.9 cm long and 3.8-4.5 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41306, 41301). Caught too sparingly to have any commercial importance (Ref. 27314).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bcd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00135 - 0.00677), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (57 of 100) .