Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 5259). Temperate; 10°S - 40°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 5259)
Oceania: Endemic to eastern and southern Australia.
Occurs in lentic and lotic freshwater (Ref. 7300). Most commonly found in tidal waters, but also occurs in rivers and lakes with salinities less than 1-2 ppt (Ref. 5259). Occurs in estuaries and lower, tidal reaches of rivers. Popular angling species that tends to swim near the bottom in deeper water. Feeds on small fishes, molluscs, worms, shrimps and other crustaceans. During winter (July and August) they move to the mouth of estuaries to breed (Ref. 44894). Oviparous, egg is pelagic (Ref. 5259) and hatches in 2-3 days. Male reaches maturity at a length of about 22 centimeters; female at about 28 centimeters (Ref. 44894).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00515 - 0.02939), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .