Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 55); depth range 5 - 180 m (Ref. 55), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 41°N - 6°S, 100°W - 36°W (Ref. 55231)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.0, range 21 - ? cm
Max length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 20.0 kg (Ref. 4883); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 55)
soft rays: 7 - 8. Dorsal profile of head slightly concave, snout long and pointed. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Scale rows on back parallel to lateral line anteriorly, but rising obliquely posteriorly, below soft part of dorsal fin. Young specimens with a dark stripe from snout through the eye to upper opercle and a blue stripe on cheek below eye.
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda southward to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including West Indies (Anderson, pers. comm.), Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
Adults inhabit coastal as well as offshore waters around coral reefs, rocky areas, estuaries, mangrove areas, and sometimes in lower reaches of rivers (especially the young). They are found in fresh water in Florida (Ref. 26938). Often forming large aggregations. Feed mainly at night on small fishes, shrimps, crabs, gastropods, cephalopods and some planktonic items. Easily approached (Ref. 9710). Good food fish (Ref. 9626). Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9987). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00847 - 0.02147), b=3.00 (2.86 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.10; tm=2-3; tmax=21).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .