Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 75 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 20°C - 28°C, preferred ?; 34°N - 33°S, 32°E - 134°W (Ref. 55)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia (Ref. 9821). Records from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf are outside distributional range (Ref. 114545).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 22.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 8. Dorsal profile of head steeply sloped. Preorbital bone about equal in width to eye diameter. Preopercular notch and knob well developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Generally tan or brownish to pale yellow-white. Scales with brownish to yellow margins. The caudal and dorsal fins are blackish with narrow white margins; the anal pectoral and pelvic fins are yellow. Striped when young (Ref. 48635). Body depth 2.3-2.8 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Adults inhabit lagoon and semi-protected seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). They prefer sheltered areas with deep holes or large boulders (Ref. 37816). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Solitary or in loose aggregations (Ref. 90102). Juveniles sometimes found in shallow mangrove swamps and the lower parts of freshwater streams. Adults feed at night on fishes, shrimps, crabs, holothurians and cephalopods (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.01359 - 0.01849), b=2.98 (2.95 - 3.01), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .