Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 668 m (Ref. 54567). Temperate; 60°N - 25°N, 81°W - 52°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 46.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3787); max. published weight: 22.6 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 796)
Western Atlantic: Quebec in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA, but uncommon in nearshore waters south of North Carolina, USA.
Inhabits continental shelf, occurring deeper in southern parts of range (Ref 7251); tolerating a wide range of temperature (0-21°C) (Ref. 5951).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01103 - 0.03004), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.06-0.1; tmax=30; Fec=300,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .