Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lobotidae
Etymology: Lobotes: Latin, lobus = lobe (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243), usually 70 - ? m (Ref. 55224). Subtropical; 45°N - 42°S, 100°W - 161°E (Ref. 55224)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 19.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 11 - 12. Adults dark brown or greenish yellow above, silvery grey below; pectorals pale yellow, other fins darker than body; caudal fin with yellow margin (Ref. 4386). Rounded caudal fin that appear as single 3-lobed fin (Ref. 26938).
Tropical and subtropical waters of all oceans. Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda to Argentina (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 231); Madeira to the Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 6947); South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559), Fiji and Tuvalu (Ref. 12596).
Adult inhabits bays (Ref. 37816), muddy estuaries and lower reaches of large rivers (Ref. 48636). A sluggish offshore fish that often floats on its side near the surface in the company of floating objects. Occasionally drifts over reefs (Ref. 9710, 44187). Juvenile may occur in floating Sargassum and mimic a floating leaf (Ref. 37816). Feeds on benthic crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 30573, 44187). Marketed fresh, frozen, or salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tortonese, E., 1990. Lobotidae. p. 780. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6947)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.00788 - 0.05538), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1; tmax=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .