Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Liza: Spanish, liza = grey mullet.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 30578). Temperate; 60°N - 20°N, 18°W - 42°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.9, range 25 - 32 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3646); max. published weight: 2.9 kg (Ref. 40476); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 40476)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 8 - 9. Fusiform body (Ref. 51442). Massive head, flattened above the eyes (Ref. 51442). Small mouth (Ref. 51442). Snout short and blunt (Ref. 51442). Two dorsal fins well-separated, the first with 4 to 5 spines (Ref. 40476, Ref. 51442). Pectoral fins are placed high on the flanks (Ref. 51442). Large scales (Ref. 51442). Dorsal sides and flanks gray-colored, ventral side white (Ref. 51442).
Eastern Atlantic: from the coasts of southern Norway to Morocco, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 2804, Ref. 51442). Records of its occurrence in tropical waters are based on misidentifications (Ref. 3573).
A pelagic species occurring near shore, entering lagoons and lower reaches of rivers; often in polluted waters (Ref. 59043). Migratory species (Ref. 51442). Spawning takes place at sea near the coast during gatherings between September and February (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). The eggs develop in the sea and juveniles colonize the littoral zone and estuaries (Ref. 51442). The adults enter the lower parts of the rivers (Ref. 51442). They live usually inshore, entering lagoons and estuaries and rivers between temperatures 8-24°C. Feed on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms, pelagic eggs and larvae. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
Thomson, J.M., 1990. Mugilidae. p. 855-859. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01070 (0.00843 - 0.01358), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15; tm=3-5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .