Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Chelon: Greek, chelone = turtle (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 40448). Tropical; 32°N - 28°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); common length : 26.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 8 - 10. Greenish-grey dorsally; flanks and abdomen silvery; fins grey or bluish with dusky margins and may appear yellowish at base (Ref. 9812). Pectoral with golden base, and perhaps a dark spot (Ref. 9812). With rudimentary axillary scale.
Indo-Pacific: east coast of Africa, including Madagascar, Seychelles, Rodriguez; north to Sri Lanka and India (except Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Bengal), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east to Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Japan, Marshall and Tuamoto islands, Melanesia and Polynesia (Ref. 2830).
Occur in shallow coastal waters, and from brackish water to freshwater regions of rivers (Ref. 41299). Form schools (Ref. 40448); in larger aggregations during spawning, which takes place at sea (Ref. 2830). Feed on small algae, diatoms, forams, benthic polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, organic matter and detritus; fry feed on copepods and floating algae (Ref. 40448). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Caught mainly during the spawning season and is sold fresh; the roe is highly appreciated.
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition I. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp v-866. (Ref. 41299)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00726 - 0.01734), b=2.98 (2.86 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .