Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 160 m (Ref. 50550), usually 10 - 125 m (Ref. 6793). Temperate; 72°N - 43°N, 135°E - 105°W (Ref. 117245)
North Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk, Kuril Islands, Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia and Bering Sea. Arctic Canada.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 14 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 17.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.1 - 6.6, mean 1.8 (based on 2472 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00431 - 0.01761), b=3.11 (2.95 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .