Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 150 m (Ref. 9988). Temperate, preferred 9°C (Ref. 107945); 72°N - 43°N, 25°W - 45°E (Ref. 54565)
Northeast Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Iceland and Norway; Barents and White seas; also Baltic Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 26.0, range 13 - 25 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 27407)
Adults live mainly on sandy bottoms, from a few meters to about 100 m. Feed mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled. microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00689 - 0.00875), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3-0.6; tm=2-3; tmax=12; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.49, 2 SD range = 0.24 - 0.98, log(r) = -0.71, SD log(r) = 0.35, Based on: 2 M, 13 K, 13 tgen, 4 tmax, 14 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .