Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 700 m (Ref. 50593), usually ? - 91 m (Ref. 2850). Temperate; 67°N - 35°N, 130°E - 125°W (Ref. 54599)
North Pacific: Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and Barkley Sound, Canada. Reported from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea (Ref. 28503).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.9, range 21 - 24 cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370); common length : 33.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4883); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 34 years (Ref. 55701)
Adults feed on hydroids, worms, mollusks, and brittle stars (Ref. 6885). Marketed frozen and eaten fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.2 - 6.1, mean 3.4 (based on 33 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00718 - 0.00964), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1-0.15; tm=4-10; tmax=34; Fec=1 million).
Prior r = 0.33, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.44, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .