Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Lichia: Greek, lichia = corpse like skin colour.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 3197). Subtropical; 47°N - 28°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 60 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3197); max. published weight: 50.0 kg (Ref. 27584)
Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Delagoa Bay, Lourenço Marques.
Adults are found in coastal waters including estuaries. Occasionally entering lower reaches of rivers like the Kunene and Orange Rivers in Namibia (Ref. 52863). Feed mainly on fish; juveniles prefer crustaceans (Ref. 4332). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Popular game fish (Ref. 3197).
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00861 - 0.02785), b=2.95 (2.79 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .