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Leucoraja ocellata  (Mitchill, 1815)

Winter skate
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Leucoraja ocellata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)
Leucoraja ocellata
Picture by Sargent, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Leucoraja: Greek, leykos = white + Latin, raja = a fish, Raja sp. (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 90 m (Ref. 7251).   Temperate; 51°N - 34°N, 79°W - 55°W (Ref. 55278)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 52109)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Disk rounded, with many small dark spots on upper surface. Usually 1-4 ocelli on upper surface on each side of disk, each with a dark brownish center and pale edge. Young have long middorsal row of large spines on disk and tail. Upper jaw has 72 rows of teeth (Ref. 7251). Lower surface usually white but marked with irregular pale brownish blotches (Ref. 6902).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Newfoundland Banks and southern Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to North Carolina, USA.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Prefer sandy and gravelly bottoms in shoal water in the north range; to at least 90 m in south (Ref. 7251). Benthic (Ref. 5951). Those caught at Cans, Nova Scotia in Canada were found to have eaten dollarfish, cunner, and squid. Mostly inactive during daylight hours, but active under dark conditions (Ref. 10807). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 5.5-9.9 cm long and 3.5-5.3 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 7135, 71301). Electric organ discharge (EOD) activity seemed more frequent during dark periods (Ref. 10808). The individual EOD of this species is monophasic, head-negative, and lasts 217 ms (Ref. 10011). This species is used only for the manufacture of fish meal.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

  Endangered (EN) (A2abd+3b+4abd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00263 (0.00146 - 0.00473), b=3.23 (3.08 - 3.38), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.