Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Macleay.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 35 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 3°S - 23°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8. Cheek without scales; the inner base of pectoral fins densely covered with scales. Body is tan, brown or yellow with scattered irregular blotches; head brown or yellow with blue dots on cheeks and short blue stripes radiating in front and behind the eye, sometimes a number of blue cross stripes between the eyes; fines pale or yellow, the vertical fins are mottled.
Western Pacific: southern Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. There has been considerable confusion in the use of names for this species. In recent literature it is referred to as Lethrinus fraenatus or Lethrinus fletus. The former name is clearly a junior synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus however and the latter a junior synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis.
Juveniles found in seagrass beds and mangrove swamps. Adults found over coral reefs. Often in schools (Ref. 9710). Feeds mainly on crustaceans and fishes. Considered a good food fish. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00712 - 0.03073), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .