Lepomis macrochirus  Rafinesque, 1819

Bluegill
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Lepomis macrochirus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Centrarchidae (Sunfishes)
Etymology: Lepomis: Greek, lepis = scaled + Greek, poma = gill cover, operculum (Ref. 45335, 79012);  macrochirus: macrochirus meaning large hand, probably referring to the body shape (Ref. 10294).   More on author: Rafinesque.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15.   Subtropical; 1°C - 36°C (Ref. 35682); 50°N - 25°N

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 72462)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

A dark blue or black "ear" on an extension of the gill cover called the opercular flap; a prominent dark blotch at the base of the dorsal fin, close to the tail; typically olive-green backs, with a blue or purplish sheen along the sides; faint vertical bars may be present along the sides; breeding males may have more blue and orange coloration on their flanks (Ref. 44091).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

North America: St. Lawrence - Great Lakes and Mississippi river basin; from Quebec to northern Mexico. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are found frequently in lakes, ponds, reservoirs and sluggish streams (Ref. 5723, 10294); occur primarily in reservoirs in Hawaii; preferably live in deep weed beds (Ref. 5723). Active mainly during dusk and dawn. Adults feed upon snails, small crayfish, insects, worms and small minnows (Ref. 5723). Young feed on crustaceans, insects and worms (Ref. 5723, 10294).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; ; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01700 (0.01448 - 0.01995), b=3.13 (3.09 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19-0.23; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.