Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 120 m (Ref. 11230). Subtropical; 41°N - 22°N, 117°E - 141°E (Ref. 54561)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Northwest Pacific: Yellow and East China seas.
Found in the sublittoral zone above 120 m in sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Trewavas, E., 1977. The sciaenid fishes (croakers or drums) of the Indo-west Pacific. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 33:253-541. (Ref. 5369)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00885 - 0.01963), b=3.03 (2.91 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .