Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Labridae
Etymology: Labrus: Greek, labros = furious (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 200 m (Ref. 5292), usually 40 - 80 m (Ref. 4742). Subtropical; 71°N - 12°N, 32°W - 36°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); 30.0 cm TL (female); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 35388)
Eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal, Azores and Madeira. Also in the Mediterranean.
Adults are found in the algal zone of rocky shores (Ref. 35388). Usually solitary or in pairs with young. Females lay about 1,000 eggs in a nest of algae; the nest is guarded by the male (Ref. 35388). Feed mainly on crustaceans but also fishes and mollusks (Ref. 4742) and worms (Ref. 35388). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205). Sex reversal is completed in 7 months (Ref. 34185, 34259).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00509 - 0.01490), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13; tmax=17; tm=2; Fec=1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .