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Kryptolebias marmoratus  (Poey, 1880)

Mangrove rivulus
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Kryptolebias marmoratus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Rivulidae (Rivulines)

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: ? - 7.5; dH range: ? - 16; non-migratory; depth range 0 - ? m (Ref. 55170).   Tropical; 18°C - 24°C (Ref. 2060); 31°N - 3°N, 93°W - 49°W (Ref. 55170)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 17.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dark spot surrounded by yellow ring on side of caudal peduncle, just ahead of upper part of caudal fin base (Ref. 26938).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North, Central and South America: eastern coasts of Florida (Indian River to Key West) in USA and Bahamas to Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Island, Brazil, French Guiana, the Netherlands Antilles, Venezuela, Belize, Mexico, Puerto Rico. Throughout Caribbean (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit shallow, mud-bottomed ditches, bays, salt marshes and other brackish-water environments; also crab burrows (Ref. 5723), moist leaf litter, decaying mangrove logs (Ref. 93034). Can withstand heavy pollution of fresh or salty waters and shares its biotope with Poecilia vivipara which is much more abundant (Ref. 35237). Usually found in water with low oxygen content (Ref. 7251). Either male or hermaphroditic, females don't seem to exist. Only about 5% of a population are born as males; after 3-4 years about 60% of the (self-fertilizing) hermaphrodites transform into secondary males by losing female structure and function. The proportion of males depends on the environmental temperature. Below 20°C, majority are males, above 25°C all are hermaphrodites (Ref. 35237). It is the only known naturally occurring, self-fertilizing vertebrate (Ref. 13056, 35237). Not a seasonal killifish. Is very difficult to maintain in aquarium (Ref. 27139).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Eggs are sometimes fertilized internally by accident via close apposition of gonopores in otherwise oviparous fishes (Ref. 7471). Regarded as a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite (Ref. 6028, 245, 35237). Eggs are 1.6 mm in diameter. Sexes can be distinguished after 8 weeks (Ref. 35237).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Costa, Wilson J.E.M. | Collaborators

Costa, W.J.E.M., 2003. Rivulidae (South American Annual Fishes). p. 526-548. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36579)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial; bait:
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Ecology
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Common names
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Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .