Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Scorpaenidae
(Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Scorpaeninae
Etymology: Iracundus: Latin, iracundus = choleric (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan, Evermann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 110 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, Mauritius, Reunion. Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559), Taiwan, and from the Society, Cook, Marquesan, Tuamoto, Pitcairn and Hawaiian islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3921)
soft rays: 5. Anterior part of dorsal fin resembles a small fish, the fin also has a spot between spines 1-2 or 1-3 (Ref. 4313). Lachrymal bone with 2 spines over maxillary, first points forward, second broad, pointing out and to rear; suborbital ridge without spines except one at rear before opercle; preopercular spines short, usually only 3 developed; no supplemental preopercular spine at base of first spine; a dark spot on the spinous dorsal fin between spines 1 or 2 and 3; and vertical scale rows of about 65-75 (Ref. 10482).
Found on sand and rubble under ledges of seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 58302). The dorsal fin mimics a tiny fish and is used as a lure (Ref. 9710). Anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1985. Guide to Hawaiian reef fishes. Harrowood Books, Newtown Square, PA 19073, USA. 74 p. (Ref. 3921)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.5 - 28.3, mean 27 (based on 299 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .