Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 14°N - 4°S, 92°W - 77°W (Ref. 188)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9336)
soft rays: 46 - 50. Body moderately slender, belly with 23 to 25 + 11 to 14 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting; gap between hind tip of premaxilla a ligament, not a toothed bone. Dorsal fin origin a little before midpoint of body; anal fin long, its origin below about last dorsal fin rays.
Eastern Central Pacific: El Salvador to the northern tip of Peru.
Occurs in coastal waters, entering estuaries, perhaps to spawn there (Ref. 9336). Feeds on planktonic crustaceans; larger individuals feed on shrimps (Ref. 9336). Flesh of low quality (Ref. 9336).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00401 - 0.01981), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.52 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .