Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 26999). Tropical; 17°N - 7°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54448)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.0, range 13 - 18 cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); common length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 45 - 50. Belly with 25 to 27 + 7 or 8 sharp scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting. Dorsal fin at or before midpoint of body; pelvic fins small; anal fin long, its origin below dorsal fin base. Swim bladder with two short tubes passing back in the muscles on either of haemal spines. Other clupeids in the area are more slender, with much shorter anal fin and the lower jaw not projecting.
Eastern Atlantic: northern Senegal south to Baie de Saint-Bras, Angola.
Found along beaches and just offshore; also in lagoons and estuaries, penetrating into almost freshwater. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, fish, and detritus (Ref. 28587).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00549 - 0.00913), b=3.02 (2.94 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8-1.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .