Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and throughout the Gulf of Mexico to Yucatán, Mexico.
Found inshore, over sandy, vegetated areas (Ref. 27549). Schooling species (Ref. 27549). Feeds on algae and small organisms (Ref. 27549). Used as baitfish where abundant (Ref. 27549). Caught with dip nets (Ref. 27549).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Murdy, E.O., R.S. Birdsong and J.A. Musick, 1997. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Smithsonian Institution Press Washington and London. 324 p. (Ref. 27549)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .