Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Hypnidae
Etymology: Hypnos: Greek, hypnos = sleep (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 240 m (Ref. 9710). Temperate; 21°S - 38°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2272); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Indo-West Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Occurs inshore and offshore, ranging from the intertidal to 240 m depth (Ref. 9910, 12951). Found buried on sand and mud bottoms; sometimes found stranded out of water by the tide but is capable of surviving for hours (Ref. 9910). Feeds on crabs, worms, and fishes. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). A slow-moving species which uses its electric organs to stun prey. Also stuns people when accidentally stepped upon or handled (Ref. 9910). Maximum length probably to 92 cm TL (Ref. 9910).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Size at birth 8 to 11 cm TL (Ref. 9910).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .