Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Ammodytidae
Etymology: Hyperoplus: Greek, hyperoplos = that has vanity with its weapons (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 6 - 30 m (Ref. 57178). Temperate; 80°N - 37°N, 25°W - 36°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - 15 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4674); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Tip of pectoral fin reaches the front end of the dorsal fin. Dark spot on each side of the snout. Two pointed teeth in the palate. Upper jaw not protractile (Ref. 35388).
Northeast Atlantic: Murman and Spitzbergen to Portugal, including Iceland and much of the Baltic.
Inshore, including the inter-tidal zone and estuaries, and offshore to about 60 m depth. Commonly associated with Ammodytes species. Feeds initially on zooplankton, later small fish (clupeids and ammodytids) dominate the diet. Summer batch spawner. Used mainly for fishmeal and oil, but also utilized fresh and pan-fried for human consumption (Ref. 9988).
Muus, B.J. and P. Dahlström, 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe. Collins, London, UK. 244 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00133 - 0.00596), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2; Fec=35,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .